About Stubble Burning
Stubble burning are major problem for farmer when they want to sow seed for next crops, they need to put more efforts to do tilling and weeding the farm. which leads extra man power and time. so Farmers burn the stubble to get rid from left over unused crop stubble (stems).
Farmer believe that burnt stubble which converted into ash is a good fertilizer and in some aspects they are right because the ash is contain with good amount of Potassium. but in comparison to benefits more loss occurs to farm as high temperature destroy or denatured many nutrients and kills many beneficial organisms.
The remaining parts of the crops. When the farmers cut their crops then to start new agriculture/ ploughing. They burn the stubble. Stubble are the leftover residues after harvesting the crop ( in case of Delhi, Haryana, Punjab: Paddy and Wheat) The stubble also called straw.
Stubble Burning in Punjab.
Punjab is one of the key contributed to burning fire. If you look at these magnitude of the issue. Punjab alone is around 7 million acres under paddy which generates closed to 20 million metric tone of stubble burning every year in the month of October and November.
According to the data of SAFAR, (System of air Quality and Wheather Forecasting and Research) as on November 1st, 2019 the pollution pervasive in Delhi today, 46% responsibility of that lies upon the stubble burning in Punjab and Haryana.
Reality of Stubble Burning
Between 2016-18, the incidents of stubble burning were on the decline. but there was an increase of 40% in 2019. It is difficult to ascertain what the reason behind their increase could be.
After 2009, the stubble burning became even more popular, when the Punjab and Haryana governments, in order to conserve water, passed a law under which, they directed (the farmers) to delay the sowing of crops untill the monsoon season. So the farmers delay sowing, the harvesting would also have to be delay. So the time between harvesting the last crop and sowing the next crop lessens. Then farmers thought that the simplest way was to set fire to the stubble.
When issue of pollution began being raised over the past few years, and the people realized that pollution is caused by burning stubble then the government of Punjab and Haryana tried different methods to curtail fire burning
- First, they thought of fining the farmers that indulged in stubble burning. It was a fine pf Rs 5000/ acre. .
- Instead of burning all the stubble,we could put it into a biomass plant and generate electricity.
- Happy seeder is a machine that states that there is no need to cut the remaining stubble nor is a there a need to set the farm on fire. this machine would spread the stubble out and use it like a fertilizer.
What are the benefits burning?
- It kill slugs and other harmful pests.
- It can reduce nitrogen tie-up.
- Ash can neutralize the soil if it is basic in nature.
- It makes easy to sowing new seeds.
- According to a research burning of stubble losses a large amount of Potassium, Phosphorus and Sulfur.
What are the drawbacks of burning ?
- Loss of nutrients.
- Pollution from smoke.
- Risk of fires spreading out of control.
- Due to cause of smoke many people suffer from irritation of eyes, nose and throat.
- The main adverse effect of crop residue burning include the emission of greenhouse gases that contributes to the Global Warming.
- It causes loss of biodiversity.